Hu Huang Lian commonly known as Rhizoma Picrorhizae is the rhizome of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, which is a perennial herb belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae. It is a relatively practical Chinese herbal medicine, which first appeared in in 659 AD.
There are two species of Pistacia, namely Picrorhiza kurroa and Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Before 1963, Hu Huang Lian referred to the Picrorhiza kurroa.
Picrorhiza kurroa is distributed in the Himalayas region from Kashmir to Sikkim at an altitude of 2,700-4,500 meters. Ayurvedic medicine has also been documented about it. It has been reported that Picrorhiza kurroa has been harvested to near extinction.
In 1965, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora was found in southern Tibet and northern Yunnan at an altitude of 4,400 meters. Because its biomorphological characteristics, tissues, water extracts, and alcohol extracts are very similar to that of Picrorhiza kurroa, it is used as a substitute for Picrorhiza kurroa.
Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora grows on the rocky slopes of 3,600-4,800 meters above sea level. It is distributed from Uttar Pradesh to southwestern China, including Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, and Sikkim.
Every autumn, people gather the rhizomes of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, remove their fibrous roots and impurities, dry them in the sun, cut them into thin slices, and make them into Chinese herbs.
Hu Huang Lian contains picrosideⅠ, picrosideⅡ, aucubin, catalpol, minecoside, specioside, rehmaglutin A, rehmaglutun D, 3-methoxyspecionnin, picrosecosidesⅠ,picrogentioside Ⅱ, picrogentiosides A, picrogentiosides C, cucurbitacin glycosides, phenylethanol glycosides, scrophulosides A, scrophulosides B, coniferin, piceoside, catechinic acid, luteolin, gallic acid, β-sitosterol, palmitic acid, caffeic acid, isoferulic acid, and vanillic acid.
According to , the medicinal property of Hu Huang Lian is relatively cold, with a bitter taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the liver, stomach and large intestine meridians.
In traditional Chinese medicine, Hu Huang Lian is often used to clear asthenic fever and damp-heat, cool blood, treat infantile malnutrition with fever, consumptive fever, hot flashes, night sweats, jaundice, urinary tract infection, bacillary dysentery, epidemic mumps, hemoptysis, epistaxis, skin ulcer, hemorrhoids, anal fistula, hepatitis, and cirrhosis. It is an important component of Jing Wan Hong Ruan Gao and Fei Er Wan.
Health benefits of Hu Huang Lian
- Anti-inflammation, anti-fungus, and anti-tumor.
- Alleviating the gastric mucosal injury induced by hydrochloric acid-ethanol in rats.
- Reducing isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury and preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
- Lowering blood sugar and blood lipids, treating kidney disease and hyperlipidemia caused by early diabetes.
- Promoting the development of T cells, increasing the activity of natural killer cells and the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and improving immunity.
- Promoting bile secretion and cholesterol metabolism, increasing the excretion of bile salts, bile acid, and deoxycholic acid.
- Reducing the acute liver injury induced by concanavalin A, D-galactosamine, or CCL4 and protecting the liver.
- Treating consumptive fever and hot flashes caused by yin deficiency.
- Clearing asthenic fever, alleviating infantile malnutrition with fever, indigestion, abdominal distension with emaciation, and persistent low fever.
- Clearing damp-heat in the stomach and intestine, treating diarrhea and jaundice caused by damp-heat.
- Relieving swelling and pain of hemorrhoids and anal fistula caused by damp-fire accumulation.
- Aucubin and catalpol can antagonize uterine contractions caused by acetylcholine in vitro.
- Studies have found that picrosideⅡ can enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, resist the production of oxygen free radicals, and reduce renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Hu Huang Lian is used with other Chinese herbs
- It can be combined with Sheng Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae) to treat hemoptysis and epistaxis caused by blood heat.
- It with Yin Chai Hu (Radix Stellariae) and Di Gu Pi (Cortex Lycii) can treat consumptive fever and hot flashes caused by yin deficiency.
- It with Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsis), Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), and Shan Zha (Hawthorn Fruit) can treat infantile malnutrition with fever, indigestion, abdominal distension with emaciation, and persistent low fever.
- It with Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae), Huang Bai (Cortex Phellodendri), and Bai Tou Weng (Radix Pulsatillae) can treat diarrhea caused by damp-heat.
- It with Ci Wei Pi (Corium Erinacei) and She Xiang (Moschus) can relieve swelling and pain of hemorrhoids and anal fistula.
Side effects of Hu Huang Lian
Hu Huang Lian has been used clinically for many years, with almost no side effects.
Individual patients taking it may cause nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, and other reactions.
Precautions of Hu Huang Lian
- The dosage of Hu Huang Lian should be controlled at 1.5-9g.
- It can be made into a decoction or mashed for external use.
- People with deficiency-cold in the spleen and stomach should not take it.
- People with digestive tract diseases should not take it.
- Pregnant women should not take it.