Ma Bo is commonly known as Puffball and is one of the notable medicinal fungi from of old. It first appeared in <Mingyi Bie Lu> around 420-589 AD.
There are 158 species of Puffballs in the world, most of which belong to the family Marburaceae, and the rest belong to the family Geostatidae.
They are widely distributed in other states except for Antarctica and usually grow in grasslands, fields, and deciduous forests. Some of them can be used as food. In Tibet, the traditional technology of making ink by Puffball still exists.
The Ma Bo referred to herein is the mature fruiting body of Lasiosphaera fenzii Reich, Calvatia gigantea, and Calvatia lilacina.
Lasiosphaera fenzii Reich is mainly distributed in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou, Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia.
Calvatia gigantea is commonly known as the giant puffball. It can be found in meadows, fields, and deciduous forests in temperate regions.
Calvatia lilacina is mainly distributed in Anhui, Jiangsu, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Hubei, Sichuan, Xinjiang, and Qinghai.
Every summer and autumn, people pick the mature fruiting bodies of Lasiosphaera fenzii Reich, Calvatia gigantea, or Calvatia lilacina, remove their impurities, dry them, or remove the hard skin of their outer layers, cut them into cubes or grind them into powder, and make them into Chinese herbs.
Ma Bo contains steroids, terpenoids, gemmatein, calvatic acid, stearic acid, fumaric acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, aspartate, serine, threonine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, urea, lipoids, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, D-allose, and a-amylase.
According to <Compendium of Materia Medica>, the medicinal property of Ma Bo is relatively mild, with a pungent taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the lung meridian.
In Chinese medicine, Ma Bo is often used to clear heat and remove toxin, relieve sore throat, treat upper respiratory tract infections, epistaxis, traumatic bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and surgical bleeding. It is an important component of Pu Ji Xiao Du Yin.
Health benefits of Ma Bo
- Anti-inflammation, inhibiting xylene-induced ear shell swelling in mice.
- Anti-oxidation, scavenging superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals.
- Inhibiting the proliferation of S180 sarcoma, Lewis lung cancer, leukemia K562 cells, and lung cancer A549 cells.
- Inhibiting the transcription and translation of reticulocyte division and reducing the activity of breast cancer cells.
- Treating gangrene and frostbite and promoting healing of ulcerative wounds.
- Purging lung fire, treating sore throat, cough, and aphonia caused by lung fire.
- Dispelling wind and heat, treating sore throat and cough caused by wind-heat.
- Cooling blood and treating hematemesis and epistaxis caused by blood heat.
- Stopping traumatic bleeding, oral bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and surgical bleeding.
- Inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus anthracis, Proteus, Pneumococcus, and some superficial dermatophytes.
- The study found that its petroleum ether extract had strong contact killing activity against armyworm.
Ma Bo is used with other Chinese herbs
- It with Niu Bang Zi (Fructus Arctii), Xuan Shen (Radix Scrophulariae), and Ban Lan Gen (Radix Isatidis) can treat sore throat, cough, and aphonia caused by lung fire or wind-heat.
- It with Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) and Quan Shen (Rhizoma Bistortae) can treat hematemesis and epistaxis caused by blood heat.
- It with Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae), Lian Qiao (Fructus Forsythiae), Niu Bang Zi (Fructus Arctii), and She Gan (Rhizoma Belamcanda) can treat acute viral pharyngitis.
- It with Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis) and Bai Fan (Alumen) can treat non-specific ulcerative colitis.
- It with Ru Xiang (Frankincense), Wu Mei (Fructus Mume), and San Qi (Panax Notoginseng) can treat cracked nipples.
Side effects of Ma Bo
Ma Bo has been used clinically for many years, with almost no side effects.
A small proportion of patients taking it may cause fever, dizziness, fatigue, vomiting, abdominal pain, insomnia, frequent urination, or skin allergies
Generally, the adverse symptoms will disappear within 1-2 weeks. People who have serious adverse reactions after taking it can be relieved after stopping.
Precautions of Ma Bo
- The dosage of Ma Bo should be controlled at 1.5-6g.
- It can be made into decoction, pill, insufflation, or ground into powder for external use.
- When making a decoction of Ma Bo, you should wrap it in gauze.
- People with cough and aphonia due to wind-cold or tuberculosis should not take it.
- Pregnant women and children should not take it.