Qing Hao is also known as Sweet Wormwood, Sweet Sagewort, Sweet Annie, Annual Wormwood, or Artemisia annua, which is an annual short-day herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. It is a relatively practical and common Chinese herbal medicine, which first appeared in <Shennong Ben Cao Jing> in the late Western Han Dynasty (about 100 BC).
Artemisia annua likes a sunny and humid environment and often grows in grasslands, wasteland, hillsides, or forest edges. It is widely distributed in temperate, cold temperate, and subtropical regions of Europe and Asia. A small part of it is distributed in some parts of North America.
This plant is often used as animal feed and as a food spice. It is also the main raw material of the anti-malaria drug artemisinin. In 1972, Chinese scientist Tu Youyou and her team extracted a colorless crystal with the molecular formula C15H22O5 from Artemisia annua. They named this colorless crystalline substance artemisinin.
Artemisinin and its derivatives can effectively reduce the mortality of malaria patients. In October 2015, Tu Youyou won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contribution to the creation of new antimalarial drugs-artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin.
With the deepening of research in recent years, other effects of artemisinin have also been discovered, such as anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-viral, and immune regulation.
When the flowers of Artemisia annua are blooming in autumn, people gather their above-ground parts, remove old stems and impurities, use them directly, or cut them into segments, dry them in the shade, and make them into Chinese herbs.
Qing Hao contains artemisinin, arteannuin A, arteannuin B, deoxyartemisinin, artemisitene, artemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid, dihydroarteannuin B, artemisinin G, artemisilactone, chrysosplenetin, quercetin, scopoletin, scoparone, artemisia ketonc, camphor, borneol, caryophyllene, myrcene, limonene, β-pinene, β-camphene, β-caryophyllene. Generally, the green and fragrant Qing Hao is the best.
According to <Compendium of Materia Medica>, the medicinal property of Qing Hao is relatively cool, with a bitter and pungent taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the liver and gallbladder meridians.
The medicinal properties of Qing Hao are similar to that of Artemisia japonica, but the latter has no effect on malaria treatment.
In traditional Chinese medicine, Qing Hao is often used to clear asthenic fever, cool blood and eliminate hot flashes, relieve summer-heat and stop malaria, treat colds, flu, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, nose bleeding, lupus erythematosus, neurodermatitis, schistosomiasis japonicum Disease, and acute jaundice hepatitis.
There are about 30 kinds of Chinese medicine prescriptions containing it, such as Qing Hao Bie Jia Tang, Qing Gu San, and Hao Qin Qing Dan Tang.
Health benefits of Qing Hao (Sweet Wormwood)
- Anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-fungus.
- Inhibiting influenza virus, herpes virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus.
- Promoting bile secretion and having antipyretic and analgesic effects.
- Inhibiting steatosis and improving alcoholic liver damage.
- Improving hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and attenuating collagen deposition in rat liver.
- Slowing heart rate, inhibiting myocardial contractility, reducing coronary flow, and lowering blood pressure.
- Improving the lymphocyte transformation rate, enhancing the phagocytic ability of macrophages, and promoting cellular immunity.
- Inhibiting the proliferation of T lymphocytes induced by Concanavalin A, down-regulating cellular immune response, and suppressing immunity.
- Blocking the nutritional absorption of Plasmodium, increasing the intracytoplasmic calcium concentration of Plasmodium, and killing Plasmodium.
- Inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in diabetic retinopathy and treating diabetic retinopathy.
- Alleviating symptoms in the later stage of warm diseases, such as fever at night without sweating and persistent low fever.
- Clearing asthenic fever, treating dysphoria with feverish sensation in the chest, hot flashes, night sweats, red tongue with little coating, and fever due to yin deficiency.
- Relieving summer-heat, treating dizziness, headache, fever, and thirst caused by summer-heat.
- Clearing heat and dampness, treating eczema, urticaria, and jaundice caused by damp-heat.
- Draining dampness and resolving phlegm, treating alternating chills and fever, bitter taste in mouth, chest stuffiness with emesis caused by damp-heat stagnation of Shaoyang and Sanjiao.
- Inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer PC-3 cells, human colon cancer drug-resistant cells, adenocarcinoma GLC-82 cells, pancreatic cancer JF305 cells, breast cancer MT40 cells, and HepG2 cells.
- Inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Candida albicans, and Leptospira.
Studies have found that artesunate can improve the learning and memory ability of Alzheimer’s disease model rats.
Qing Hao is used with other Chinese herbs
- It with Bie Jia (Carapax Trionycis), Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan), and Sheng Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae) can alleviate symptoms in the later stage of warm diseases, such as fever at night without sweating, and persistent low fever.
- It with Yin Chai Hu (Radix Stellariae), Hu Huang Lian (Rhizoma Picrorhizae), and Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae) can treat hot flashes, night sweats, febrile sensation in the palms and soles.
- It with Lian Qiao (Fructus Forsythiae), Hua Shi (Talcum), and Xi Gua Cui Yi (Watermelon Peel) can relieve dizziness, headache, fever, and thirst caused by summer-heat.
- It with Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae), Hua Shi (Talcum), Qing Dai (Indigo Naturalis), and Tong Cao (Medulla Tetrapanacis) can treat malaria more effectively.
- It with Huang Qin (Radix Scutellariae), Hua Shi (Talcum), and Ban Xia (Pinellia Rhizome) can treat alternating chills and fever, bitter taste in the mouth, chest stuffiness with emesis.
Side effects of Qing Hao
Qing Hao is low-toxic and has few side effects.
Individual patients taking it may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea.
Its injection may cause allergic reactions.
It contains sodium artesunate, which has embryonic toxicity. Taking it during pregnancy may cause embryonic bone marrow development retardation.
Precautions of Qing Hao
- The dosage of Qing Hao should be controlled at 6-12g.
- It can be made into decoction, pills, injections, or mashed for external use.
- It is recommended to use fresh Qing Hao to treat malaria.
- Women with postpartum blood deficiency or pregnant women should not take it.
- People with deficiency-cold in the spleen and stomach should not take it.
- People with hyperhidrosis should not take it.
- People with diarrhea due to intestinal looseness should not take it.