Shan Dou Gen also known as Guang Dou Gen or Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis is the root and rhizome of Sophora tonkinensis, which is a small shrub of the family Leguminosae. It initially appeared in <Kaibao Bencao> (Materia Medica of the Kaibao Period) around 974 AD.
Sophora tonkinensis is also known as Sophora subprostrata. It often grows in the shrubs of the subtropical or temperate rocky and limestone mountains at an altitude of 1,000-2,000 M. It is distributed in Southwest China and northern Vietnam.
Every autumn, people pick the roots and rhizomes of Sophora tonkinensis, remove their residual stems and impurities, wash them with water, moisten them thoroughly, cut them into thick slices, dry them in the sun, and make them into Chinese herbs.
Shan Dou Gen has a beany flavor. It contains maackiain, trifolirhizin, pterocarpine, quercetin, genistein, maackian, glabrol, formononetin, sophoranone, sophoridine, sophorado-chromene, matrine, oxymatrine, anagyrine, cytisine, N-Methylcytisine, sophocarpine, oxysophocarpine, sophoranol, starch, amyloid, hemicellulose, and pectin.
Generally, Shan Dou Gen with brown or tan outer epidermis and yellowish cross-section is the best.
According to <Ben Cao Tu Jing> (Illustrated Canon of Herbology), the medicinal property of Shan Dou Gen is relatively cold, with toxicity and bitter taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the lung and stomach meridians.
In Chinese medicine, Shan Dou Gen is often used to clear heat and remove toxin, relieve sore throat and gum swelling and pain, treat psoriasis, plantar warts, chronic active hepatitis, leptospirosis, leukopenia, dysentery, arrhythmia, cervical erosion, and chorionic epithelioma. It is an important component of Watermelon Frost Spray.
Health benefits of Shan Dou Gen
- Anti-inflammation, anti-virus, and inhibiting delayed hypersensitivity.
- Anti-oxidation, scavenging superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals.
- Increasing the number of white blood cells, having sedative, analgesic, and cooling effects.
- Enhancing myocardial contractility, cardiac output, and coronary blood flow, and lowering blood pressure and blood lipids.
- Increasing the thymus index, spleen index, and phagocytic capacity of macrophages, improving immunity.
- Reducing liver damage induced by CCL4 or Concanavalin, and preventing fulminant liver injury and ischemia-reperfusion liver injury.
- Inhibiting gastric secretion and preventing pyloric ligation ulcer, stress ulcer, and acetic acid ulcer in rats.
- Relieving the sore throat caused by heat toxins, treating acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
- Clearing stomach fire, treating swollen and painful gums, mouth sores, and tongue sores caused by the flaring-up of stomach fire.
- Clearing lung heat and treating cough caused by lung heat.
- Treating snake bites, carbuncles, furuncles, jaundice caused by damp-heat.
- Inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albicans, alpha streptococcus, beta streptococcus, Shigella dysenteriae, E. coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Vibrio cholerae, leprosy bacillus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida albicans, and Leptospira.
- Matrine has inhibitory and killing effects on human pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, malignant melanoma, and other cancer cell lines.
- Oxymatrine has a killing effect on human colon cancer cells and esophageal cancer cells.
- Studies have found that intravenous matrine can significantly antagonize arrhythmias induced by aconitine, barium chloride, and ligation of an anterior descending coronary artery.
Shan Dou Gen is used with other Chinese herbs
- It with Jie Geng (Radix Platycodi) and Gan Cao (Licorice Root) can treat pediatric psoriasis.
- It with Jie Geng (Radix Platycodi), Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae), and Lian Qiao (Fructus Forsythiae) can alleviate the sore throat caused by heat toxins.
- It with She Gan (Rhizoma Belamcanda), Mai Dong (Radix Ophiopogonis), and Xuan Shen (Radix Scrophulariae) can treat acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
- It with Shi Gao (Gypsum), Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Sheng Ma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), and Mu Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) can alleviate swollen and painful gums, mouth sores and tongue sores caused by the flaring-up of stomach fire.
- The topical application of the decoction of Shan Dou Gen and Ban Lan Gen (Radix Isatidis) can treat plantar warts.
Side effects of Shan Dou Gen
Shan Dou Gen is poisonous, and the components causing poisoning may be Matrine, Oxymatrine, and Sophocarpine.
Taking it in large doses easily cause headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, limb weakness, palpitations, and chest tightness.
In severe cases, it may cause pallor, twitching and numbness of limbs, massive sweating, rapid heartbeat, elevated blood pressure, shortness of breath, dilated pupils, and eventually respiratory failure.
Precautions of Shan Dou Gen
- The dosage of Shan Dou Gen should be controlled at 3-6g.
- The main cause of poisoning after taking it is that the dosage exceeds 9g.
- It can be made into decoction or ground into a powder for external use.
- People with deficiency-cold in spleen and stomach should not take it.
- People with poor appetite or loose stools should not take it.
- Pregnant women and children should not take it.
Treatments of Shan Dou Gen poisoning
- It is recommended to induce vomiting and gastric lavage in the early stage of poisoning.
- If the patient is slightly poisoned for more than 4 hours, treatment with catharsis and activated charcoal is recommended.
- When taking it to cause severe poisoning, iv drip of vitamin C and anisodamine, or iv injection of vitamin B6 is recommended.
- Atropine injection can relieve severe abdominal pain caused by poisoning.
- Meclofenoxate can treat a coma caused by poisoning.